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Chapter 1 - How to write: some basics for shorter writing tasks

This chapter deals with some basics of writing about music especially as it applies to shorter writing tasks such as programme and CD notes. There is also some advice on writing for the internet.

Writing effectively

The Open University has released a free, fifteen-hour online course aimed at helping people write effectively.

The Wikipedia question

This question is placed at this stage of the site because any of the terms, words or concepts introduced in the book, if entered into an internet search engine would almost certainly be quickly explained through an entry in Wikipedia.

Wikipedia is the most widely used reference tool on the internet. Its popularity can be attributed to the vastness of its coverage – most words, topics and people of note have an entry – but perhaps more important is its ease of access. The administrators of Wikipedia have organised its metadata in such a way that the site reveals itself close to the top of a list of hits in a search engine. It is created and edited voluntarily by individuals from around the world; in effect, it is a collaborative community project that has little editorial control and monitoring. The question therefore is ‘How reliable is Wikipedia?’. This question is addressed in Wikipedia itself.

There can be little doubt that Wikipedia is an invaluable and handy tool, but the very fact that it is constantly in a state of change makes it important that it should not be used as the sole source of reference. It is also, by the way, the most widely plagiarised site in the world – and the one from which plagiarism is most easily detected.

Helpful external websites relevant to this chapter

Oxford English Dictionary (the best dictionary, but password-protected). OED, as it is commonly called, is available in most large libraries. It traces the origins of words and gives examples of the way that words have been used at various points in history.

Chapter bibliography

  • Chambers, E,. and A. Northedge, The Arts Good Study Guide, 2nd edn (Milton Keynes : Open University Worldwide, 2008).
  • The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).
  • Crème, P., and M. R. Lea, Writing at University: A Guide for Students, 3rd edn (Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 2008).
  • Ritter, R. (ed.), The Oxford Style Manual (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
  • Seely, J., The Oxford Guide to Effective Writing and Speaking, 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

Chapter 2 - Doing research: a basic method for longer projects

This chapter gives advice on how to develop a research method, and how research can be written up and presented. It focuses on longer writing projects, but the processes it describes will also be useful for anyone undertaking less demanding writing tasks or projects that are not ultimately aimed at a long, continuous text, but rather, for example, the compilation of a database or catalogue.

Storing and recalling information

The chapter describes how information was recorded and accessed before computers were widely available. This process seems antiquated now, but it does provide an easy explanation of the basic principles of even the most advanced electronic system. All of the major database programmes (such as Microsoft Access) have illustrative websites that show how computer databases work, and most allow you to download its programmes for a free limited-period trial. However, it is important to be absolutely sure about what you want a databases system to do for you before you invest in one – perhaps you don’t need to. The main word-processing packages contain facilities (such as tables) that can be used for storing and retrieving information. The important thing is to understand and obtain the skills of information storage. The Library of the Open University has pages devoted to this, and it is a good place to start.

Helpful licensed websites

These sites are not free for anyone to use, but they may be freely available at public and institutional libraries. The URLs are not provided, because access will only be available through a licensed site.

The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (ODNB). The primary site for biographical information about deceased British subjects. It is a massive resource that has become famous for the quality of writing from the many thousand writers who contributed entries to it. The articles provide something of a model for how to write about people.

JSTOR. A huge resource containing electronic content of a vast quantity of published periodicals. It contains material for a wide range of subjects, but it is possible to isolate the music publications for search purposes.

Free external sites with information about current research in music

Doctoral Dissertations in Musicology-Online (DDM-online). This is an international bibliography of doctoral dissertations on music. It includes both completed doctorates and those in progress. The site is arranged so that it can be searched by period as well as by author, and there is also a category of general and miscellaneous topics. One of the benefits of the site is that it allows prospective doctoral students to check what topics have already been the subject of investigation.

Golden Pages is a portal for musicology with a particularly wide coverage. It contains a broad range of facilities including details of imminent musicological conferences and an archive of such events.

The Arts and Humanities Funding Council (AHRC) is the main UK body for funding research into the arts. Its site contains information about the projects it is currently funding and those it has funded in the past. The link takes you to a search engine that allows you to find the various types of music research projects that have been supported by the council; you can then look at the details of the projects.

See also the links for Chapter 8.

Chapter bibliography

  • The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).
  • Phillips, E. M., and D. S. Pugh, How to Get a PhD: A Guide for Students and Their Supervisors, 5th edn (Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 2010).
  • Ritter, R. (ed.), The Oxford Style Manual (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
  • Seely, J., The Oxford Guide to Effective Writing and Speaking, 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

Chapter 3 - Using libraries and the internet

This chapter deals with libraries, how to make the best use of them and the printed and electronic resources they contain. It also offers advice on how to use the internet discriminatingly as a research tool.

Using the internet

‘Safari’ is a free service provided by the library of the Open University of the UK. It guides you through the various stages of using the internet for learning and research.

Internet resources

Library classification systems

When you use a library, it is a good idea to familiarize yourself with its classification system (the method by which the books are catalogued and stored). Very large national reference libraries such as the British Library have unique classifications, but British public libraries generally use the Dewey decimal classification system. This system is explained in the book, but a full list of the subjects covered in the system is available (music items start at number 780).

Some parts of the English-speaking world use the American Library of Congress system. An explanation of the system is available (in this system, the class ‘M’ lists ‘Music and books on music’).

National libraries

Most countries of the world have national libraries which contain vast collections of books, manuscript archives, recordings and various types of visual images. These are reference libraries: you have to visit the library to consult its holdings, and this can only be done after you register as a ‘reader’.

Beyond the fact that these libraries are important to advanced researchers, their catalogues, which are always freely available online, are invaluable because of the quantity of bibliographical information they hold. Also, these national libraries are increasingly making parts of their holdings (especially visual images) available on their websites.

The British Library is the main and largest library in the British Isles, but Scotland, Wales and Ireland also have their own national libraries which hold important specialist collections of music.

The national library for the USA is the Library of Congress.

University and conservatoire libraries

Universities and conservatoires throughout the world have libraries that hold important collections of music and information about music. No general advice can be provided about public access to these collections because each institution has its own rules and procedures. All such libraries have websites, and a search for such sites in the area in which you live is the best starting point. However, COPAC offers a single search facility for more than 70 UK and Irish university, national and specialist libraries, and OCLC WorldCat is a searchable database for libraries and their contents throughout the world.

Music research databases

Two important databases for music research which you may be able to access through your library are RIPM (Répertoire international de la presse musicale / Retrospective Index to Music Periodicals 1800-1950) and RILM Abstracts of Music Literature (Répertoire international de littérature musicale / International Repertory of Music Literature). You can find out more about them from their websites.

See also the Chapter 8 links.

Other helpful external websites

Golden Pages, maintained by Royal Holloway, the University of London, is a portal for musicology with a particularly wide coverage. It contains a broad range of facilities including details of imminent musicological conferences and an archive of such events.

The William and Gayle Cook Music Library at the University of Indiana provides another such portal through its Worldwide Internet Music Resources.

Yale University’s Music Resources on the Web provides hundreds of links, classified by type.

Chapter bibliography

  • Buckley, P., and D. Clark, The Rough Guide to the Internet,14th edn (London: Rough Guides Ltd., 2009).

Books about the internet go out of date very quickly, so always look for the most recent edition.

World Guide to Libraries is an electronic resource that may be available in your library. It gives the contact details for over 80,000 libraries worldwide, as well as summarizing their holdings. It is updated annually.

  • World Guide to Libraries (Munich: K.G. Saur, 1996-).

See also the bibliography and links for Chapter 8.

Chapter 4 - Scholarly conventions: citing sources

This chapter explains what scholarly referencing systems are and why we use them in academic writing. It is closely related to Chapters 9, 10 and 11, where the application of referencing systems to different kinds of source (including books, printed and electronic journals, music and pictures) is illustrated. The chapter helps you recognise both the two main systems: the short-title system (also called the Chicago system) and the author–date system.

Helpful external websites

The Chicago Manual of Style Online is only available by subscription, but its website has some freely accessible resources including an interesting ‘Question and Answer’ page and a ‘Quick Guide’ to Chicago citation style.

The Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA) offers its MHRA Style Guide as a free download.

Chapter bibliography

  • Butcher, J., C. Drake and M. Leach, Butcher’s Copy-editing: The Cambridge Handbook for Editors, Copy-editors and Proofreaders, 4th edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  • The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).
  • Price, G. and B. Richardson (eds), The MHRA Style Book, 2nd edn (London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 2008).
  • Ritter, R. (ed.), The Oxford Style Manual (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Chapter 5 - Using illustrations: notated music, pictures, tables and other visual representations

This chapter raises the questions you should ask yourself when deciding whether and how to use illustrations in your writing or in a spoken presentation. It addresses the issues that arise with different types of illustrations, and gives advice on signalling and labelling them.

Rights: what is protected by copyright?

One of the issues dealt with in the chapter is the tricky one of copyright. It is tricky because it is so complex and operates differently in different countries. There are two reasons why copyright may be relevant to you. If you produce a creative work, you may want to protect it as your registered ‘intellectual property’. However, the more likely reason is that that you will need to seek permission to use material such as written texts, images and recorded music for your own purposes.

The UK copyright service has created a helpful fact sheet that summarises the relevant issues.

Sites that contain images

Most national and specialist libraries and many museums and galleries make images available online, and some – the British Museum, for example – allow you to download them freely for the purpose of private study, although you will need to apply for permission and pay a fee if you want to include them in a publication.

The Cartography Department of the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands provides a huge, impressively organized and apparently comprehensive collection of maps.

The Library of Congress provides links to a wide range of photographs and other images, especially relating to American culture.

The Smithsonian Institution is the world’s largest museum and has several research centres which include music. It is a rich resource for images. Typing ‘music’ in the search box will take you to a selection of relevant sites.

The ongoing RIdIM project is dedicated to identifying images relevant to music, cataloguing them and establishing a framework for investigating and understanding them. The RIdIM site provides a number of useful links for music iconography.

Chapter bibliography

  • Evans, H., and M. Evans (compilers), Picture Researcher’s Handbook: An International Guide to Picture Sources and How to Use Them, 7th edn (Leatherhead: Pira International, 2001).
  • Writer’s and Artist’s Yearbook (London: A. & C. Black, [published annually]). (See the section on copyright.)

Chapter 6 - Language and numbers

This chapter marks the beginning of Part 2 of the book, the reference section, which is a collection of information that you might need in writing about music. Chapter 6 lists some of the most widely accepted conventions in the use of language and numbers, such as how to use apostrophes, whether to write numbers in words or figures, how to avoid biased language, and how to deal with some tricky spellings.

Transliterations

This private site, constructed by Thomas D. Pederson, includes some wise cautions about its accuracy, but it contains a vast array of transliteration symbols from a very wide range of languages.

Abbreviations

Oxford DNB Abbreviations lists hundreds of abbreviations (and their punctuations) used in Oxford University Press’s Dictionary of National Biography.

Obsolete currencies

The Sources on Monetary History site is a portal to several other sites that deal with the history of money, the values of old currencies, and when and where they were used. It covers the currencies of many countries and also deals with references to old currencies in works of fiction.

Roman numerals

The Nova Roma site provides a brief explanation of Roman numerals and a facility for converting modern numbers into roman numerals.

Chapter bibliography

  • The Chicago Manual of Style,16th edn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).
  • Ritter, R. (ed.), The Oxford Style Manual (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
  • Trask, R.L., The Penguin Guide to Punctuation (London: Penguin Books, 1997).

Chapter 7 - Some musical terms and phrases

This chapter is a selective reference source for words and phrases commonly used in writings about music. It includes abbreviations, and clarifies terms that are sometimes used confusingly or inaccurately.

Italian musical terms

A list of Italian expressive terms (with their pronunciations) is available online.

German musical terms

German musical terms are available from the same provider.

Music notation symbols

A list of music notation symbols with explanations is available online.

Musical instruments

The Instrument Encyclopedia is based on artefacts from the Stearns Collection of the University of Michigan. Instruments can be browsed either by country of origin or by a version of the Sachs-Hornbostel classification system.

Chapter bibliography

  • Boustead, A., Writing Down Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975).
  • The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, 10 vols (New York: Routledge, 1998-2002).
  • Holoman, D. K., Writing about Music: A Style Sheet, 2nd edn (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008).
  • Kernfeld, B. (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 3 vols, 2nd edn (New York: Grove, 2002).
  • Randel, D. M. (ed.), The Harvard Dictionary of Music, 4th rev. edn (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003).
  • Read, G., Music Notation: A Manual of Modern Practice, 2nd edn (New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1979).
  • Sadie, S., and J. Tyrrell (eds.), The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 29 vols, 2nd edn (London: Macmillan, 2001). (Also available electronically as Grove Online.)
  • Shepherd, J. et al. (eds), The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, 7 vols (London: Continuum, 2003-2005).
  • Strahle, G., An Early Music Dictionary: Musical Terms from British Sources 1500–1740 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
  • Taylor, E., First Steps in Music Theory (London: ABRSM, 2011).
  • Taylor, E., The AB Guide to Music Theory: Part I (London: ABRSM, 2007).
  • Taylor, E., The AB Guide to Music Theory: Part II (London: ABRSM, 2008).

Chapter 8 - Sources and research tools

This chapter deals with the books and electronic resources that you can use to find information about music. It includes reference works such as dictionaries, encyclopaedias and catalogues, as well as the more specialist books that music researchers use.

RILM, RISM, RIPM and RIdIM

The chapter mentions RILM, RISM, RIPM and RIdIM. These acronyms refer to the four great international collaborations dedicated to identifying, classifying and disseminating information about four categories of musical source. They deal with, respectively, musical repertoire, literature about music, musical periodical publications and music iconography. Each has a site explaining its project and what it offers.

RILM (Répertoire international de littérature musicale/International Repertory of Music Literature)

RISM (Répertoire international des sources musicales/The International Inventory of Musical Sources)

Thirty-two countries contribute to the RISM project to locate and catalogue surviving music sources up to 1850. The UK contribution is overseen by the RISM (UK) Trust, and its site contains information about the project and its resources.

RIPM (Répertoire international de la presse musicale/Retrospective Index to Music Periodicals 1800-1950)

Tutorials for the use of RIPM online are available.

RIdIM (Répertoire internationale d’iconographie musicale/The International Inventory of Music Iconography)

The RIdIM project is part of the Center for Music Iconography at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.

Sound recordings

The value of recorded music for musical research and discourse is increasingly widely acknowledged. Two sites are especially outstanding. One of these is the Centre for the History and Analysis of Recorded Music (CHARM), a collaborative venture between a number of British universities, which has developed a range of resources and tools for studying recorded music.

The other is the Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara, which provides open access to some of the very oldest recordings online.

Other music sites

The British Library. Gives you access to the music and general catalogues of the British Library, as well as the catalogue and other resources of the British Library Sound Archive.

The Digital Archive of Popular American Music. Enables you to access information about the sheet music collection of the Archive of Popular American Music at UCLA, including images of sheet music cover art.

Indiana University Bloomington Libraries, the William and Gayle Cook Music Library. The front-running university music website in the USA, wide-ranging with an impressive collection of links.

The International Association of Music Information Centres. Gives links to the sites of music information centres in most countries.

The Library of Congress. Sophisticated and extremely useful site that includes many sound recordings, photographs and sheet music held by the library.

The National Music Museum, University of South Dakota. One of the largest museums of musical instruments in the world.

Naxos Music Library. Password-protected, but may be available through your library. An extensive, searchable and playable collection of recordings of classical, popular and world music and jazz.

The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts: Selected Music Resources on the Internet (currently not available due to Hurricane Sandy). A well-organized American public library site with good links.

Oxford Bibliographies. Password-protected, this is an annotated bibliography and research guide to the key literature across a range of disciplines. The ‘Music’ section contains over fifty entries on musical topics.

Royal Holloway, University of London, The Golden Pages: Links for Musicians on the WWW. One of the best UK sites.

Sibelius Academy: Music Resources. An excellent Finland-based site.

General encyclopedias, dictionaries and other reference sites

Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica in its online form – comprehensive and with many links.

Cartography Department of the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands. A huge, impressively organized and apparently comprehensive collection of maps.

Cambridge Dictionaries Online. Cambridge University Press site providing free access to a range of language reference works.

CIA Factbook. Contemporary statistical information with maps on every country in the world. The site is extremely useful for obtaining accurate information about a wide range of issues concerning almost every country in the world.

Oxford English Dictionary. The best dictionary, but password-protected.

Oxford Reference Online. Password-protected, but it may be available through your library. Contains an enormous range of Oxford University Press reference works, from language dictionaries to dictionaries of science, art, history and so on, as well as many titles in the ‘Oxford Companion’ series. Includes a substantial number of ‘Performing Arts’ reference works.

Chapter bibliography

Music reference books

This section is a very selective bibliography. It gives examples of some of the more helpful reference books that will serve as alternatives or additions to New Grove II.

  • Baker, T., Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, revised by N. Slonimsky, 6 vols, 9th edn (New York: Schirmer Books, 2000).
  • Brown, H. M., and S. Sadie, Performance Practice, New Grove Handbooks in Music/The Norton Grove Handbooks in Music, 2 vols (London: Macmillan, 1990).
  • Caldwell, J., Editing Early Music, Early Music Series 5, rev. edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995).
  • Campbell, M., and C. Greated, The Musician’s Guide to Acoustics, new edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).
  • Clough, F. F., and G. J. Cuming, The World’s Encyclopedia of Recorded Music (London: The London Gramophone Corp. in association with Sidgwick & Jackson, 1952. First Supplement (April 1950 to May–June 1951) is bound with the main volume; Second Supplement (1951–2) London, 1952; Third Supplement (1953–5) London, 1957; repr. by Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 1970).
  • Gammond, P. (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Popular Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).
  • The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, 10 vols (New York: Routledge, 1998-2002).
  • Gray, M.H., A Bibliography of Discographies, 3 vols (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1977–83).
  • Hefele, B., Jazz Bibliography: International Literature on Jazz, Blues, Spirituals, Gospel and Ragtime Music with a Selected List of Works on the Social and Cultural Background from the Beginning to the Present (Munich: K. G. Saur, 1981).
  • Hill, G. R., and N. L. Stephens, Collected Historical Series and Sets and Monuments of Music (Berkeley, CA: Fallen Leaf Press, 1997).
  • Hitchcock, H. W., and S. Sadie (eds), The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, 4 vols (New York: Grove’s Dictionaries of Music; London: Macmillan, 1986).
  • Hoffmann, F. W., The Literature of Rock, 1954–1978 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1981). Supplements: The Literature of Rock II, 1979–1983, with B. L. Cooper and L. A. Hoffmann, 2 vols (1986); The Literature of Rock III, 1984–1990, with Additional Material for the Period 1954–1983, with B. L. Cooper (1995).
  • Kernfeld, B. (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 3 vols, 2nd edn (New York: Grove, 2002).
  • Lawson, Colin, and Robin Stowell, The Historical Performance of Music: An Introduction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
  • Lord, Tom, The Jazz Discography (West Vancouver: Lord Music Reference, 1992-). (Also available online by subscription and on CD-ROM.)
  • The Music Index: A Subject-Author Guide to Current Music Periodical Literature (Detroit, MI: Information Service, Inc., Jan. 1949 onwards). (Also available on CD-ROM.)
  • Myers, H. (ed.), Ethnomusicology, New Grove Handbooks in Music, 2 vols (London: Macmillan, 1993).
  • Nettl, Bruno, Reference Materials in Ethnomusicology: A Bibliographic Essay, 2nd edn (Detroit, MI: Information Coordinators, 1967).
  • Randel, D. M. (ed.), The Harvard Dictionary of Music, 4th rev. edn (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003).
  • The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press; Harvard University Press, 1996).
  • Sadie, J. A., and R. Samuel (eds), The New Grove Dictionary of Women Composers (London: Macmillan, 1994); American edn, The Norton/Grove Dictionary of Women Composers (New York: W. W. Norton, 1995).
  • Sadie, S. (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, 3 vols (London: Macmillan Press; New York: Grove’s Dictionaries of Music, 1984).
  • Shepherd, John, et al. (eds), The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, 7 vols (London: Continuum, 2003-2005).
Thematic and other catalogues of musical works – published and unpublished

The complete editions of the works of major art music composers also function as catalogues of the outputs of those composers. These catalogues are often given in a user-friendly form as appendices to entries on composers in New Grove II.

The most comprehensive list of thematic catalogues is published in Barry S. Brook and Richard Viano’s Thematic Catalogues in Music: An Annotated Bibliography, 2nd edn (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1997).

Three other sources are worth mentioning with regard to unpublished and published music in earlier periods. These volumes between them contain references to a huge quantity of music written in the Middle Ages and Renaissance:

  • Brown, H. M., Instrumental Music Printed before 1600: A Bibliography (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965; reprinted by iUniverse, 2000).
  • Kellman, H., et. al. (eds), Census-Catalogue of Manuscript Sources of Polyphonic Music, 1400-1550, Renaissance Manuscript Studies 1, 5 vols (Neuhausen-Stuttgart: American Institute of Musicology and Hänssler-Verlag, 1979-1988).
  • Lesure, F. (ed.), Recueils imprimés, XVIe-XvIIe siècles, Vol. 1, Part 1, RISM Section B (Munich: Henle, 1960).
Other reference books
  • Birch, D. (ed.), The Oxford Companion to English Literature, 7th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009). (Also available online at http://www.oxfordreference.com.)
  • Bowman, J. S. (ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
  • Encyclopedia Britannica, 32 vols, 15th edn (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2007). (Available electronically as Britannica Online).
  • Evans, H., and M. Evans (compilers), Picture Researcher’s Handbook: An International Guide to Picture Sources and How to Use Them, 7th edn (Leatherhead, UK: Pira International, 2001).
  • Parini, J. (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature, 4 vols (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).
  • Matthew, H.C.G., and B.H. Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004). (The most comprehensive dictionary of British biography. Also available online.)
  • Mitchell, B. R. (ed.), International Historical Statistics 1750-2005: Africa, Asia and Oceania; Americas; Europe, 3 vols, 6th rev. edn (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).
  • Simpson, J. A., and E. S. C. Weiner (eds), The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989). (Available online.)
  • Turner, J. (ed.), The Dictionary of Art, 34 vols, new edn (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003). (Available online as Grove Art.)

See also the links in the Resource Collection.

Chapter 9 - Citations I: The printed word and its electronic equivalents

This chapter illustrates the citation methods for various kinds of printed and electronic sources, including books, chapters, websites and articles in printed and electronic journals.

Writing style guides

The Chicago Manual of Style Online is only available by subscription, but its website has some freely accessible resources including an interesting ‘Question and Answer’ page and a ‘Quick Guide’ to Chicago citation style.

The Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA) offers its MHRA Style Guide as a free download.

Chapter bibliography

  • Butcher, J., C. Drake and M. Leach, Butcher’s Copy-editing: The Cambridge Handbook for Editors, Copy-editors and Proofreaders, 4th edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  • The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).
  • Price, G. and B. Richardson (eds), The MHRA Style Book, 2nd edn (London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 2008).
  • Ritter, R. (ed.), The Oxford Style Manual (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Chapter 10 - Citations II: Musical sources

This chapter illustrates how to cite musical works, performances, recordings, CD liner notes and other specifically musical items.

Chapter bibliography

  • Brook, B. S., and R. Viano, Thematic Catalogues in Music: An Annotated Bibliography, 2nd edn (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1997).
  • Butcher, J., C. Drake and M. Leach, Butcher’s Copy-editing: The Cambridge Handbook for Editors, Copy-editors and Proofreaders, 4th edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  • The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).
  • The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. 10 vols. New York: Routledge, 1998-2002.
  • Holoman, D. K., Writing about Music: A Style Sheet, 2nd edn (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008).
  • Kernfeld, B. (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 3 vols, 2nd edn (New York: Grove, 2002).
  • Randel, D. M. (ed.), The Harvard Dictionary of Music, 4th rev. edn (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003).
  • Ritter, R. (ed.), The Oxford Style Manual (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
  • Sadie, S., and J. Tyrrell (eds.), The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 29 vols, 2nd edn (London: Macmillan, 2001). (Also available electronically as Grove Online.)
  • Shepherd, J. et al. (eds), The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, 7 vols (London: Continuum, 2003-2005).

Chapter 11 - Citations III: Other sources

This chapter gives guidance on how to cite sources that fall outside those covered in Chapters 9 and 10, including films, paintings, patents, various kinds of unpublished documents such as manuscripts in libraries and archives, and personal communications such as conversations and emails.

Helpful external websites

The Chicago Manual of Style Online is only available by subscription, but its website has some freely accessible resources including an interesting ‘Question and Answer’ page and a ‘Quick Guide’ to Chicago citation style.

Chapter bibliography

  • Butcher, J., C. Drake and M. Leach, Butcher’s Copy-editing: The Cambridge Handbook for Editors, Copy-editors and Proofreaders, 4th edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  • The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).
  • Ritter, R. (ed.), The Oxford Style Manual (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
 

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